A Simple Guide to Basic GIT Commands

A Simple Guide to Basic GIT Commands

Ada Lovelace, a young visionary mathematician wrote the first computer program for Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers. She predicted that by representing data into numbers, machines (modern computers) could produce graphics,  compose music and be useful to science. What she predicted more than 150 years ago is actually happening. It all started with her program.

Today programmers are writing way more complicated computer programs and software applications. Teams of developers collaborate to develop mobile apps, desktop apps and web apps that are running businesses. 

However, multiple programmers writing code for the same application can lead to inconsistency and errors without proper collaboration and version control. This is the reason why code collaboration and version control platforms play a significant role in the development of software applications. SVN, GIT and there are several other version control systems. However, GIT is the most used tool for source code management and tracking changes in files. GITHUB is another tool that is very popular in the software/web development industry. 

GIT and GITHUB are not the same. However, they are closely connected. GIT is a version control system. You have to install and maintain GIT on your local system. It provides you with the branching model. You can create an independent branch and try out new ideas. It takes a click of a button to delete, merge, and recall branches.  

On the other hand, GITHUB is a cloud-based hosting service that is designed as a GIT repository hosting service. It allows you to share code with others. You can revise or edit your code.


To use GIT and GITHUB, install git and create a GitHub account. To create a new project on your computer, create a new repository. First of all, open the terminal and move to the folder to place the project. 

$ cd ~/Desktop

$ mkdir myproject 

$ cd myproject/

Now, run git init command to initialize a git repository.

$ git init

Once you see the following in the terminal, you can add a new file to repo:

Initialized empty Git repository in /………………./Desktop/myproject/.git/

Adding a new file to the repo:

You can use touch command to add a new file to the repository.

$ touch filename.txt

Use the git status command to see the files in the repo:

$ git status

If you want to upload a file from your computer, open the terminal and use the following commands:

$ git config –global “ADD_YOUR_USERNAME”
$ git config –global “ADD_YOUR_EMAIL”

Clone GIT repository

$ git clone GIT_REPO_LINK
$ touch
$ git add
$ git commit -m “add README”
$ git push -u origin master

You can also push an existing folder using the following commands:
Move to the existing folder.

$ cd existing_folder






 Now run the following commands in the terminal:

$ git init
$ git remote add originGIT_REPO_LINK
$ git add .
$ git commit -m “Initial commit” //ADD YOUR COMMENT HERE
$ git push -u origin master

You can push an existing repository using the following commands:
Move to the existing_repo

$ cd existing_repo

Use the following commands:

$ git remote rename origin old-origin
$ git remote add origin GIT_REPO_LINK
$ git push -u origin –all
$ git push -u origin –tags 

Switching Branches in GIT

Having more than one branch in the repository is pretty common. You can easily switch branches in GIT using checkout command. Suppose you have the following two branches in your repository:

  • master
  • hello-git-branch

Suppose that the master branch is the current branch. Run the following command to switch to hello-git-branch.

$git checkout hello-git-branch

In this demo, we transfer a remote repo to a local machine from Github. It contains the following two branches:

  • master branch
  • hello-git-branch

The hello-git-branch is created using:

$ git branch hello-git-branch

As you can see in the git bash screenshot, the current active branch is master branch:

You can see $ ls command returning the names of the files in the master branch.


Switching From master to hello-git-branch Branch   

Run the following command and check the change in the below screenshot:


$ git checkout hello-git-branch


You can see that no message is displayed. However, you can see the name of the branch ‘hello-git-branch’ in brackets.



gitignore File 

It is a file in which you can list certain files and folders that you want GIT to ignore. You can create this file both locally and globally. When created locally, it is often added to the project’s root directory. When created globally, all entries in the .gitignore file are ignored in all the Git repositories.


Creating a .gitignore File Locally

Create a text file with name ‘.gitignore’. Now add folder or file you want to be ignored. Keep in mind that you have to add one entry at each line.

The entries in the .gitignore can follow certain matching patterns. Check the table:  



* Wildcard Match 
/ Ignore pathnames
# Add comments


 .gitignore File Example 

# Ignore Mac system files

# Ignore node_modules folder

# Ignore all text files

# Ignore files related to API keys

# Ignore SASS config files

Run the following command to add or change the global .gitignore file:

$ git config –global core.excludesfile ~/.gitignore_global

This creates the file ~/.gitignore_global. Edit the global .gitignore file just like a local .gitignore file.

Untracking Files Committed from Gitignore 


You can untrack a single or every file in .gitignore.

The following command untracks a single file

$ git rm –cached filename

Untracking every file:

Commit all the outstanding changes in the code and run the following command:

$ git rm -r –cached

Now run:

$ git add .

Commit it:

$ git commit -m “.gitignore is now working”

You can use git add filename to undo git rm –cached filename.

Comprehensive Guide To Page Speed Metrics

Comprehensive Guide To Page Speed Metrics

Slow and steady doesn’t win the race in the world of web. It is ‘first come first serve’ working here. You have to be fast to come first. Website page speed is one of the 200 ranking factors listed by Backlinko. And now when Google is going to shut down Google+, Google+ circles will not be a ranking factor anymore. Anyways, let’s stick to the topic. Speed is an important ranking factor. Whatever sincere efforts you are putting in the optimization of your website, this will bear no fruit if web pages are taking more than 3 seconds to load.

If your website is slow and you don’t love being abandoned by users, it’s time to prepare page speed report and see what you can do. There is a decent number of web page metrics related to the site speed. Therefore, you might find it hard to differentiate between one from another. Which site speed metric is more important and which one needs a little less attention. The help is available.


Check Page Load Time

If you are ignoring this site metric then you are making a big mistake. It is just like stepping on banana peels. Intentionally.

Google analytics reports this default site speed metric. Admittedly, a user cares more about the experience. What if Google itself stops the user from getting the experience you are offering. Site speed is a ranking factor.


Learn About First Contentful Paint

You can also work on First Contentful Paint. This is a stage at which text, images, or other graphics are rendered by the browser. This includes text with pending web fronts but excludes content in iframes. A user in this stage begins to consume the content. If the user is getting nothing to read in a few seconds (during First Contentful Paint), the user will abandon your website. You can make use of Google’s PageSpeed Insights tool to see the time to First Contentful Paint.


Check Document Interactive Time

This metric represents the time when the user is first able to interact with the elements on the page. The bounce rate of your website greatly depends on First Contentful Paint and document interactive time. This is a speed metric that demands serious and sincere attention. Google Analytics reports this site speed metric for a reason. Go to the Site Speed Report to see document interactive time.

Check Document Interactive Time



The time an HTML document takes to load and parse completely is DOMContentLoaded. However, external resources such as images () and stylesheets may not be loaded. The content on the page is loaded and visible and the user can interact.


There are some other useful metrics as well
Page Size

Back in 2013, the average web page size was 1MB and now it is more than 1.7MB. Your website is likely to be slow if page size is big. And, you should work on it. Optimize images properly.


Number of HTTP Requests

In order to get fully loaded, a web page will request some files. For example, if it is required to download some file, the page will send an HTTP request to the server. The web page will make one HTTP request for one file. These requests are made sequentially for each HTTP connection. Even when it is a small web page, each request needs a minimum time and then there is a server response time. In addition to request and server response time, there is literal speed (the speed at which data is traveling from one place to another).

Minimizing the number of HTTP requests a web page is making will help. Implementing the HTTP2 protocol will enable you to make multiple HTTP requests simultaneously on one connection.


Why you should be aware of these metrics?

A better understanding of these Web Page Metrics will help you in developing an optimizable website and you can run more productive digital marketing campaigns.

Remember, slow and steady does not win the race here.

Untold Success Story of Sarahah: The Anonymous Honesty App That Took The App Store By Storm

Untold Success Story of Sarahah: The Anonymous Honesty App That Took The App Store By Storm

Are you on Sarahah? The anonymous messaging app is on top of the download charts these days and here’s everything that you might be looking for about this mysterious app!

Downloaded by millions of people across the globe, the app has managed to hit #1 in App Store in 30 countries including the US, UK, and France (As per the 1 month stats mentioned in its official tweet). Within its very first month of launch, Sarahah enjoyed more than 250 millions visitors and 1 billion page views!!!

The phenomenal performance of the honesty app seems pretty startling and of course mind-bending to app makers. Given the record-breaking figures, people are trying to know more about its usability, origin, and what made it so successful!

You too interested? Dive in and find out every nook and cranny about this new, most hyped honesty app.

So basically what’s Sarahah and Honesty App?

Meaning honesty in Arabic, Sarahah is an interesting concept created as an anonymous way to offer supportive criticism in the workplace. It is meant for team members for somewhat secret one-way communication…at least that was the idea of the makers initially!

Here are some enticing facts about the app in brief:

Developed by Tawfiq, the concept was finally launched as an app after its success in Arab. With contribution of a third-party company, an iOS app was introduced to the App Store on June 13, 2017. That was the time the app first became available in English. Within its first week only, it received over 2 mn unique visitors.

Here are some enticing facts about the app

On July 5, Snapchat also released a new update and just three days after this, for the first time, Sarahah jumped to top 1500 apps in App Store (as stated by analytics by Sensor Tower). Post 4 days, it again promoted to 104th position. Then 2 days later, the rank was #17 and finally three days later, Sarahah surpassed the records and claimed #1 position on the App Store. This made it leave behind all the major social networks including Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat and rest of the popular platforms.


What made Sarahah buzz of the town?

Only positive word of mouth couldn’t be credited as the sole reason for record-breaking performance of the app. Coming over to the business point of view, there’s something more than the hypes. We tried to look deep on to the app and other factors and here’s what we found equally responsible for its success.

For a regular user, the app brings a new, innovative, and engaging app which offers them a way to connect to the people they know without those people knowing anything about “who sent what!” This is the first reason why Sarahah gained so much popularity from users across the globe. Yes we know that there have been some similar like Yik Yak, After School, and Secret in the recent and far away past, yet there’s something about it that lures the people.

Also, the idea that it’s the latest option available right now and has somewhat brought back the old concept the new way has also triggered users to secretly share their thoughts about the people they know.

This idea of an anonymous app at the time when people are so involved in social networks and communication is yet another plus point.


From the business eye…THE SNOWBALL EFFECT…

The app seems to have followed the snowball effect, which is characterized by people being influenced by their friends and colleagues for something and then joining the same row. Let’s make it clear to you with the help of an example.


You are probably on Sarahah now…ever guessed why!!!

Let’s say one of your friend shared his/her Sarahah profile link with you inviting you to share your thoughts about them secretly. You ignored first but tempted to find out what it is and finally clicked the link.

You saw the page and found it interesting to leave comments about your friends that they wouldn’t find out you sent. Then you thought why you should be different and you created an account and shared your profile link with your friend as well.

That’s where the whole game begins. This SHARING is the base of Sarahah getting viral tremendously all over the social media as users have been posting the comments they received ever since they joined the app.

***A few people checked out the app, they shared the link and comments with their friends or public on different social networks, and then more people joined it….and the series continued***

Now interestingly, a normal user doesn’t calculate and do the aftermath. People try something for a reason or for nothing, they like it and they connect with it. But business doesn’t go like that. If the app is at the top of App Store today, it is owing to several factors that contributed towards its success.

From marketing perspective, Sarahah seems to have been successful due to the hype created by people and strong presence of social networks to promote and share it.

If you understand the idea, you will be able to know why the previous apps couldn’t be that successful…due to less craze and role of social media in their lives.

There are some other things as well that make it somewhat better:

  • Revived version of the old concept
  • Better interface and UI
  • Social media kick
  • Of course, positive word of mouth and the viral stage

And it’s secret you know~!


What can be improved?

Even though the app is on the hitlist of users these days, there are a few points we’d like it to add or improve, including:

  • No options to delete sent comments.
  • If you don’t have app version, you won’t be able to share the comments directly from within the app.
  • Too many spams.


Beware of the SPAMS…

Soon after people joined the app, they have been receiving spam messages with the name of Sarahah for eg,,

These spams invite you to download third-party apps in exchange of revealing usernames of anonymous senders. Users are recommended to ignore and keep a check on such spams and share no information on such sites.

Beware of the SPAMS

These spams invite you to download third-party apps in exchange of revealing usernames of anonymous senders. Users are recommended to ignore and keep a check on such spams and share no information on such sites.


Our Opinion

Well it might be too early to comment anything on the app yet the benchmark it has set within such a short span is worth analysis. So we paid a little attention and came to the thought that Sarahah seems to be an interesting app with potential to sustain longer. Yet for now, it is no exception to flaws and needs a couple of improvements in some aspects.

Despite the doubts regarding how anonymous the app really is or the involvement of spammy third-party apps and ads, the platform is anyhow able to engage users and might be expected to come up with something different and new features in the near future (that’s what we hope). Keeping all this aside, Sarahah seems fun and something unusual than the regular FB, Twitter, or WhatsApp, which makes it more appealing to us and to everyone around.

6 Principal Design Practices For A Perfect Landing Page

6 Principal Design Practices For A Perfect Landing Page

Landing page is a primary and a definitive part of successful inbound marketing practices. This page totally affect the leads, so every campaign you perform should be connected to a custom page – opposite to an ambiguous homepage where the visitors don’t know where to go. It is a quite tricky task to do. There are many elements of landing page that are supposed to be best.  Although there is no particular formula to get the perfect landing page, but there are some common rules that can help you in getting the perfect one.

Test As A User

While thinking of your landing page, it’s better to put yourself first in the visitor’s shoe. Ask some questions from yourself.

  • What information is important to effectively convey the key message to the visitor?
  • What are the main features in the user’s mind?
  • How can the products and services be communicated to the visitor?

Understanding user and his behavior are essential as it is key to get the desired results from the landing page. You can get a better acknowledgment of how user comes to your website and what he prefers. It will also give an idea of the formatting of elements in the page.

Use A Strong Call-To-Action That Stands Out

CTA is the action that you want from your client to click on. Whatever may the objective of landing page, we just want conversions. It’s very important for users to know what to do next after reading the landing page content. For this reason, it’s better to make your call-to-action big and above the fold. Using directional signs to your CTA is also a good practice. You can use words like “free”, “download now”, “buy”, etc navigate to this web-site. to attract the visitors as these words are more likely to get clicked. The CTA button should be bright, big and should stand out of the entire page.

Use Products Images and Videos

Creating a tempting video and image is the first step of engaging audience. Using videos of testimonials and images of the product can give a positive impact on the visitors. It will give them an extra push to look further.  Make sure you choose the images relevant to the content and is optimized. Including too many over-the-top images is also a bad idea as it will distract the user from the main content. So, choose images and videos wisely.

Compact and Clear Page Headlines

Your headline is the main thing that your customers will see on the landing page. It is very important that the headline and the content complement each other.  Having a consistent content between the ad and the landing page content is crucial. Also, the headline should not be complicated and bore and should attract them to take a deeper look of the page. It should tell people that what is the page about. Limiting your headline to six words would be a good practice.

Get To The Point

While designing the landing page, keep the things simple and get straight to the point. People come to your page for a reason. You should make sure that you address that reason clearly showing what services and products you are providing, are related to their interests and needs. Use clear headers, sub headers and bullets for points to make your content concise.

Using Contrasting Colors

Landing page designs are very important for online success. If you can’t clearly gat the attention of your visitor, then will loose them forever. You will always want your CTA to pop off clearly from your landing page. For this, make sure it’s easy for your visitors to know that from where they should complete the action. That’s why choosing the right colors for CTA is also crucial to grab the visitor’s attention.

Powerful Guidelines to Generate Massive In-App Revenue

Powerful Guidelines to Generate Massive In-App Revenue

Building a potential app is not enough, you need to review the monetization strategy. If the app is providing equivalent free options and not more than that then many of your clients will find any other substitute in the App Store weight loss supplements. Because of this, depending on advertising for revenue is a convenient option. But these ads can be unwanted and distract for users.

So, how will you achieve the steady stream of earnings without sacrificing the user experience? Below is the concise introduction to in-app advertising basics which will help you in finding the best ad monetization strategy.


In-app advertising provides a better solution to perfectly target the users and suggest them to interact with the brands. It provides a close connection with the user on a personal level. Users expect a high level of personalisation so keep in mind your customer’s expectation before executing an ad. Both the publisher and the advertiser could suffer because of not targeting the correct audience with the quality ads.


It’s very important for both, advertisers and publishers, to understand that in-app ads are an important part of the total user experience. So, you must confirm that your content doesn’t drive the user away. Ads should be pleasing, valuable, enjoyable, approaching their needs and interests. To attain this, you need to understand that what the target audience would like to see for the next 30 seconds. Improvement in overall user experience will result in higher engagement and conversion rates.


Technical potentials of an in-app ad are changing as the mobiles are evolving. It is very necessary to consider the right format for your targeted audience to produce a high ROI. Below are the 6 common types of ads:

Standard Banner Ads

These ads are clean and sharp, compelling the clients to click on them. It is a very popular ad format because it is very noticeable, placed either at the bottom or the top of the screen. It is the safest and simplest way to forward the brand name to many people without annoying them.

Interstitial Ads

These ads are the full-screen ads that can take the complete screen of the users. They are mostly positioned either when the app is loading or while closing the app. Its disadvantage is that it can be intrusive to the user as it covers the full screen.

Notification Ads

These are designed to pop up in the mobile’s status bar to make users well informed of the ad. However, it can be sometimes very annoying and can damage the reputation of your app.

Native ads

These are integrated within the apps. These don’t look like ads at first glance, making them easily acquired by the audience.

Hyper-Local Targeted Ads

Many of the apps ask for the permission to access client’s location after downloading the app. These use GPS data of smartphones to geographically locate the audience for delivering relevant ads.

Video ads

These type of ads have the high level of engagement and are very simple. They need a good budget and gives high conversion rate when the content is related and captivating. There are 3 types of video ads – Pre-Roll, Mid-Roll, and End-Roll. Pre-roll ad arrives before the video has begun, Mid-roll in the middle of the video and End-Roll after the video.


Get your user’s attention without being too annoying. Along with the placement, you also need to focus on the frequency of the ads. If you wait for a long time, then your conversion rate will suffer and if you execute them in a short period of time, then you can frustrate them and they will end up closing the app.

There are many reasons to uninstall your app, but the poor user experience is one of the most common reason. Your proper ad monetization strategy can result in boosting high revenue and giving customer satisfaction.